PhaseOne Pure Hypochlorous Solution
Chronic wounds are frequently associated with diabetes, venous stasis, peripheral vascular disease and pressure ulcers. The presence of biofilm in an open wound can inhibit the rate of healing and increase antibiotic resistance. Many of the etiologic factors in chronic wound infections are related to the formation of biofilm while most of the topical antiseptics impair wound healing due to their innate cytotoxicty.
Hypochlorous (HOCl) solution is a naturally occurring, broad spectrum, fast-acting antimicrobial agent produced as part of the innate immune system’s response to infection during oxidative bursts by neutrophils and monocytes. PhaseOne is pure HOCl, containing no sodium hypochlorite, or bleach, as a preservative. PhaseOne will remove microorganisms of all types, every time it comes into contact with the wound bed. Pure hypochlorous solution (HOCl) is maintained in vitro in a pH range of 3.5 to 6.5. Above this pH, the chlorine species converts from hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to hypochlorite anion (O+CL–) or bleach.
Mechanism Of Action
When a wound becomes infected our natural defenses including neutrophils and phagocytes attempt to rid the body of biofilm. This natural reaction creates an inflammatory response in an attempt to separate and dislodge the biofilm that adheres to the base of the wound. During the activation of neutrophils, oxygen bursts generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the activated enzyme, myeloperoxidase, converts H2O2 into hypochlorous acid (HOCl) when exposed to Chloride (CL-) anions and Hydrogen (H+) cations. HOCl, unlike diluted bleach or Dakin’s solution, is an uncharged molecule and can penetrate microbial cell walls and spores easily. Lab studies have shown that PhaseOne, in solution, is 80 to 100 times more potent as a germicide than hypochlorite anion (O+CL–) or Dakin’s solution.
PhaseOne Disrupts and Eradicates Biofilm
PhaseOne disrupts and eradicates biofilm in solution, killing bacteria and fungi then neutralizing resulting toxins. Formulated as a pure concentration of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and made without the irritating bleach found in other products, it is gentle and non-irritating to skin.
- Broad Spectrum: Hypochlorous acid leads to cellular death by the oxidation of sulfhydryl enzymes and amino acids which, among other reactions, results in loss of intracellular contents, decreased uptake of nutrients, decreased oxygen uptake and breakdown of DNA. Hypochlorous acid is very effective against all bacteria, viruses and fungi.
- Doesn’t interfere with underlying new tissue: Lab studies have shown that PhaseOne, in solution, is effective against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria without toxicity to human cells. Lab studies have shown that very low concentrations of hypochlorous solution are effective in killing and eradicating biofilm. In contrast, the concentration of antiseptics and topically applied antibiotics that are required to eradicate biofilm are toxic to newly forming tissue. For example, Dakin’s solution would have to be diluted 1:10,000 in order to be non-toxic (safe to underlying tissues), yet at this concentration Dakin’s solution is no longer effective as a bacteriocidal agent. Similar antiseptics are also successful in microbial eradication, but at typical concentrations they are cytotoxic and impair the rate at which wounds heal. PhaseOne does not contain harmful surfactants which are commonly used by other wound cleansing products to loosen and remove dirt and debris from the wound site.
- Odor: PhaseOne does not interfere with underlying new tissue and has been shown in laboratory studies to neutralize the virulent factors that are commonly found in the wound bed such as toxins that are excreted into the wound site after cellular breakdown. Toxins are responsible for the characteristic wound odors associated with many different pathogens.
Frequently Asked Questions
How Effective Is PhaseOne in Killing and Preventing Biofilm?
In lab studies, PhaseOne in solution exhibits a rapid kill time, is effective against bacteria, biofilm, and fungi, has a wide therapeutic index, does not generate microbial resistance and is safe to underlying tissues without causing pain to the patient on application. PhaseOne reduces the bio-burden by killing bacteria and disrupting biofilm in-vitro and achieves rapid kill rates (log 4 kill in less than 60 seconds) without requiring irrigation post application. PhaseOne has no known pathogenic resistance, no known contraindications and does not cause bacterial resistance. In vitro testing has shown PhaseOne, in solution, is also effective against all know pathogens, including:
- H. influenzae
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- E. coli
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Bacteroides fragilis
- Clostridium perfringens
- Staphylococcus haemolyticus
- Vibrio vulnificus
- Candida albicans
- Aspergillus brasiliensis
- Enterobacter aerogenes
- Klebsiella pneumoniae
- Proteus mirabilis
- Serratia marcescens
- Staphylococcus hominis
- Staphylococcus epidermidis
- Staphylococcus saprophyticus
- Corynebacterium amycolatum
- Streptococcus pyogenes
- Bacillus oleroneous
How Stable Is PhaseOne?
PhaseOne is maintained in medical grade, dense amber glass to maintain the integrity and potency of the hypochlorous acid in normal saline solution. Unopened, PhaseOne maintains full potency for 36 months from the date of manufacturing. Once the 40 ml bottle is opened or comes into contact with the plastic spray tubing, its potency is ensured for 30 days.
- Wilson JR, Mills JG, Prather ID, Dimitrijevich SD. A toxicity index of skin and wound cleansers used on in vitro fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Advances In Skin & Wound Care 2005; 18:373 – 378
- Wang L, Bassiri M, Najafi R, Najafi K, Yang J, Khosrovi B, Huong W, Barati E, Belisle B, Celeri C, Robson MC. Hypochlorous Acid as a Potential Wound Care Agent Part I. Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid: A Component of the Inorganic Armamentarium of Innate Immunity. J Burns Wounds 2007; 6: 65-79.
- Robson MC, Payne WG, Ko F, Mentis M, Donati G, Shafii SM, Culverhouse S, Wang L, Khosrovi B, Najafi R, Cooper DM and Bassiri M. Hypochlorous Acid as a Potential Wound Care Agent: Part II. Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid: Its Role in Decreasing Tissue Bacterial Bioburden and Overcoming the Inhibition of Infection on Wound Healing. J Burns Wounds 2007; 6: e6
- A New Antiseptic Solution with Potential Applications in Wound Care. Data on File.